MARKETING is a tool to SELL products, services and messages. As the CEO of your idea, your #1 job is to SELL it—MARKET it— to potential partners, customers, employees, and investors.

Out of the gate, let’s shatter a myth. Online or digital marketing, print advertising, merchandising, display, marketing on the net, or marketing on mars, are all the same thing. We are ALWAYS marketing to PEOPLE, and what motivates human behavior hasn’t changed since we became human.

Turning an IDEA into something other people will find value in, and then getting those people to buy our offering, or into our message, requires an intimate understanding of the marketing process.

Marketing 101—Marketing Fundamentals

Marketing, as defined by Google’s dictionary is, “The action or business of promoting and selling products or services, including market research and advertising,” whatever that means. What ACTION, being taken by who, exactly? This definition is a bit vague, as are most definitions of marketing, because the actual PRACTICE of marketing is more an art than a science, even with today’s big data analytics. And the ART of MARKETING takes many forms.

To date, the marketing industry has had no universal definition on what MARKETING actually IS, until now…

Marketing is manipulating people to do what you direct them to do.

I’ve gotten a lot of push-back from this definition. People are disturbed by the word MANIPULATE, as a moral issue. While, it’s true, I could have used the word MOTIVATE, that would be the rhetoric they sold you in business school, and a lie. Most of us would not willing choose to overpay for an iPhone, that has less power and fewer features than their competitors, if Apple wasn’t MANIPULATING you into believing their UI is special, or using Apple products in public gives you the perception of being ‘cool.’

And before you get on rails that Apple produces the best electronic devices out there, you are simply confirming that they are marketing effectively. I, too, used to be an Apple devote. When the Macintosh first came out (Jan. 24, 1984), it was blow you away better than any other personal computer out there. I fell in love, and stayed in love for years, until the cost of upgrading the Mac’s memory to run programs like PageMaker and Photoshop nearly cost me my business. I sought alternatives, as competitors always pop up, like the wack-a-mole game, with every commercial success. I found PCs, even laptops, from IBM’s ThinkPad to Toshiba’s Satellite, that had come out years earlier with quadruple the memory than Apple’s Mac offered (at double the price as the other PCs). We are all manipulated by effective marketing.

According to Google, MANIPULATE means “to handle or control (a tool, mechanism, etc.), typically in a skillful manner.”

OK. Let’s go with that. In fact, if you strip away the social consensus, MANIPULATE is a verb, a very specific ACTION, not theory. What makes MANIPULATION a moral issue depends on who you are trying to manipulate, and for what purpose.

I manipulate my kids daily to do what I think is best for them. Get As, to get into good colleges, to compete in the global, automated job market you’ll enter, I’ve preached since they’ve entered middle school. I try and talk them into dealing with their real feelings instead of hiding in bravado. Eating right. Sleeping 8 hours a night. Get off their fu**ing cellphones. If I were ad campaigns, our home would be stuffed tight with 17 years of memes, tweets, blog posts, brochures, fliers, post-its, videos, and emails to my kids trying to get them—manipulate them—to do as I say, or as I’m directing them to do, from learning to speak, to potty training, to applying for colleges.

We all market our messaging, and our BRAND virtually daily. Dress to impress at work, or on a date? You choose a BMW or Prius? Have kids? What have you raised them to believe? How have you taught them to behave? What messaging have you marketed to them throughout your lives together?

In marketing terms, MANIPULATE, simply refers to getting people to do what they wouldn’t normally do on their own, by using a motivator, an incentive to respond as directed. As babies, of course, and then kids, my children naturally responded to my marketing efforts, often simply for the reward, the motivator of pleasing me. Now, as teens, not so much. So I have to up my marketing efforts, change it up with their new demographics, to make any impact. I’m working on that as I type this…; }. (Marketing is an iterative process.)

Marketing is MANIPULATING people to do what we direct them to do, to ACT as we tell them to.

Well, how do we do that? Marketing, as a theory, is quite simple. But between theory and reality is the Grand Canyon. How do we actually GET people to do what we want them to, to ACT as we direct? Ask a parent of teens, and most will tell you, we don’t have a clue.


This inverted triangle (LSM_Pic5) is marketing model called a CONVERSION FUNNEL. It illustrates how getting a sale generally works. A SALE can mean many things, from selling MMO games through iTunes, to getting newsletter sign-ups, to convincing someone to hire you. Whether selling a product or message, the CONVERSION FUNNEL is the defacto gold standard of marketing theory. This model is only theory, as it tells us what we must do to market effectively, but neglects to tell us how to do that.

As theories go, the CONVERSION FUNNEL is a good starting point— a foundation to build an understanding of MARKETING.

First, you must make someone AWARE you have a product or service.

Next, you have to spark their INTEREST, to see if your offering is something they may want.

Then they CONSIDER if they want what you have to offer.

If you’ve marketed effective, they’ll decide they actually DO want, or need, or desire your product or service, and COMMIT to buying it (or signing up, or clicking on your ad, or whatever your marketing directed them to do).

And finally, they take the ACTION to BUY your offering.

So, let’s put some of this theory into ACTION, and PRACTICE what we must do to actualize these conversion steps and get someone to BUY our offering, or into our messaging.

Before we introduce our product or service to anyone, we must be aware of what our offering DOES, and for WHO? In other words, we must PRODUCTIZE our offering so that it serves a desire for a specific group of people, which we call our likely customers, or TARGET USERS.

We make potential customers AWARE of our product or service with our ELEVATOR PITCH, often long before the offering is produced.

We build awareness of our product or service through NETWORKING, websites, print and online advertising, social media marketing campaigns, trade shows…etc.

We spark INTEREST— command attention— with images and headlines that attract our TARGET USERS, and promote the best thing, or greatest DIFFERENTATOR about our offering, in all of our marketing efforts.

Continually reminding people with email campaigns, PPC ads, PR, press, and social media updates, will keep our offering on their minds, and help them to CONSIDER our product or service more often. Advertising our offering is an ongoing necessity if we hope to continue selling it. Marketing tools and campaigns must be produced and published constantly, to build brand awareness, keep the customers we have, and convert new customers to buy our product or service.

Getting people to make a COMMITMENT to buy our offering, or buy into our messaging, is the hard part. People talk a lot of crap, say they just “love it!,” but then don’t want to spend the money to get it. So, how do we get people to actually BUY our offering, or to ACT upon our messaging?

This question is at the foundation of all MARKETING, but one you first must ask yourself: What motivates YOU to buy something?

We all purchase necessities like food, clothing, shelter. But WHAT food, fashion, and living space do we buy, and what motivated our choices?

Income, race, religion, age, location, are obvious factors in our decision making. Most of us likely can’t afford a mansion in Beverly Hills if we’re college students. It’s more likely we’ll rent a flat near campus. If I’m marketing my great new app for finding affordable rentals, it would be wise to target my advertising and marketing efforts at college students. Known as TARGET MARKETING, which we’ll closely examine later, it is easier to get a sale if we market to the people who will likely find interest in what we’re selling. Obviously.

Assuming we already have our target’s interest, and attention—we’re just trying to close the sale—we can use a variety of known marketing tools to do this. Consistently releasing striking advertising campaign that offer solutions, or meets a desire of our TARGET USERS are a must. Testimonials and great reviews motivate us to buy, so we tout them in our marketing efforts.

The GREATEST MOTIVATOR to get people to purchase are INCENTIVES. Sales. Special offers. Perks, like free stuff, or memberships, will often convert CONSIDERATION to COMMITMENT and close the sale.

This conversion process may take a minute, like buying a coffee at your local cafe, or years, like when purchasing a Ferrari. But it’s important to remember that the purpose of MARKETING, in person, in print, or online, is manipulating people to do what we direct them to do.

Manipulating People Means Selling Them

Manipulating people to do what we want can mean many things. (LSM_Pic6)


Selling a MESSAGE, such as a political perspective, or belief in a religion, uses all forms of advertising and marketing. From online ad campaigns to social media marketing (SMM) of their many followers, Christianity spends billions in advertising dollars annually to convince us to believe their religion is the only truth. Clearly, many have been MANIPULATED to believe this. Christianity has, and is, MARKETING effectively.

Apple is utilizing the marketing tool SIGNAGE, by lighting up their logo on the side of their buildings to soliciting people to come in and buy.

Ford not only sells with annoyingly loud commercials, they also build brand awareness on their Twitter feed daily, to help sell their vehicles.

Websites are virtual storefronts for our company, product, or service. And everyone from veterinarians to politicians, to anyone selling anything—product, service, or message, needs a website today.

Calvin Klein jeans became widely known with a PRINT ad campaign, where actress Brook Shields posed, full body, in CK jeans, and an open shirt. Calvin Klein was making a subtle promise to women, that they too could look like Brooke if they wore CK jeans. And women believed the ad campaign, bought CK jeans, regardless that most didn’t look anything like sexy actress/model Ms. Shields in them. MARKETING sells PERCEPTION, as well as products and services.

In MARKETING terms, MANIPULATING people means selling them on our products, services and messages.

So ultimately, MARKETING is SELLING.

Advertising and marketing campaigns are tools we sell with. And after the PRODUCTIZATION process, you’ll learn how to create effective marketing tools and campaigns to build brand awareness, spark interest, and ultimately sell your offering.



Marketing is selling, manipulating people to buy into our message, our product or service. And even though we are all selling different offerings, from politics to pottery, off or online, effective marketing—advertising that motivates people to ACT as our marketing directs— is always sell the same thing:

Effective marketing sells FEATURES and BENEFITS fulfilling WANT.

Whether marketing a sale on your product, or sign-ups for your newsletter, effective marketing sells FEATURES and BENEFITS of your product, service or message that satisfies a NEED, offers a SOLUTION, or quenches a desire for a specific group of PEOPLE.

Throughout these WORSHOPS, we’ll drill down on identifying and communicating with your target audiences, but first we must examine what motivates response.

How We Get People to Do What We Want

What motivates people to ACT? It’s a very important question, because marketing is about getting people to do what we direct them to do, or to ACT.

At the foundation of marketing is Psychology. To be effective at marketing—motivating people to ACT— we must seek to understand, monitor, and categorize human behavior.

Psychology is more ART, than science. Humans are complex beings, dynamic, our needs and desires constantly changing with age, and life circumstance. We lie to ourselves— tell ourselves we need things we don’t, or make promises we never keep, like dieting, exercise, control spending, less time on devices, YouTube…etc. We lie to each other, because we believe it ourselves, or we want to appear smarter, kinder, wiser. We ALL fib, exaggerate, fabricate, remember wrong because memory has been proven to be faulty. Humans are fickle, which is what makes figuring out what motivates us particularly difficult when we often don’t know ourselves.

We are just beginning to identify a few basic behavior patterns common to most of us through big data collection and analytics. However, assessing and categorizing behavior does not automatically give us the reason WHY someone chose to take an action.

Remember, Humans are dynamic, complicated, and motivating us to take any action is hard. But regardless of age, or even life changes, there is one motivator that is undeniably effective at getting people to do what we want them to.

What consistently motivates most people to ACT?


This is not an indictment of humanity. This is who we are, an unalterable part of our nature. And marketing must deal with this fact. What this means, in applicable terms, is we must offer people something they want, or they think they need in order to get them to buy our offering or into our messaging. Whatever we sell must provide some value, or the perception that obtaining it will gratify us. To achieve the greatest possible response rates, from every advertising or branding campaign, make sure to address how your offering will BENEFIT your potential customers, with every marketing effort.

At the foundation of effective marketing, Objective Manipulation employs the psychology of SELF-INTEREST to funnel viewers towards an objective, usually to purchase (or sign-up; click), or buy into our messaging (branding). Utilizing Storytelling to Sell—creating a narrative to sell our offering (as in, you’ll look sexy in tight jeans regardless that you don’t have the body-type of a model), also known as ‘selling perception,’ is a common form of Objective Manipulation used in marketing today.

In the psychology of humanity, and most every other living being on this planet, there is no such thing as Altruism. Even ‘saints,’ like Mother Teresa, who spent her life feeding the poor, caring for the sick, did so out of SELF-INTEREST, not altruism. Altruism is a religious construct to motivate good deeds, to get people out of our own heads, even for a moment, to consider others.

No doubt, many of you reading this, especially the religious among us, are bridling right now. “Of course Altruism is REAL. It’s what we strive for, our highest attainment— to give selflessly, because we are fundamentally caring, loving beings.”

Not so much. We are fundamentally self-serving.

This is not a judgment call, but a fact of human nature. What can be judged is what we DO with this fact of our nature.

As Mother Teresa spread the word of Christ around the world with every sick child she fed, she was fulfilling her function as a nun. And her brain rewarded her efforts with Dopamine, Serotonin, Oxytocin— ‘happiness’ hormones that made her feel good. Ohh, so good! In the face of that kind of poverty, I’d be crying daily. I don’t do what she did because it would not make me feel good in any way. I’d be profoundly sad, every day, knowing Christ will never save these children. People are going to have to do that.

SELF-INTEREST, without exception, is THE motivator that gets people to ACT.

It is important to be aware of this fact about us, in order to produce effective marketing material that motivates your audience to take the ACTION your campaign directs. To get people to buy into your product, service or message, you must understand their psychology— what they think they need or want, and why, then offer them features, benefits and solutions that are in their perceived, and often unconscious, SELF-INTEREST.

Bernie Madoff did it to a lot greedy people. He fulfilled their desire to get rich quick without effort when he convinced them to invest in his pyramid scheme.

On the other end of the spectrum, Toyota did it, when they invented the Prius. And Tesla is doing it in 2018 with the consumer version of their all electric vehicle.

Humans are self-interested beings. What we do with this fact is what matters, NOT that we ARE.

Toyota and Tesla produce the cars they do to make money. And while serving themselves, they are moving closer to serving the greater good, by producing cars that have low emissions.

Martin Andrew Green is an Australian professor at the University of New South Wales who’s dedicated his career to developing solar cells. Mr. Green’s self-interest is scratching a mental itch. He’s curious about light energy, and in learning how to manipulate it, his brain rewards him, makes him feel powerful, smart, valuable, serving his emotional needs. He is also contributing to the greater good of humanity, and nature, by developing alternative ‘clean’ energy.

SELF-INTEREST in NOT a curse. It is simply a state of being… human, in our case, but seemingly dictates the behavior of everything else that lives on Earth. Survival of the fittest is how species last over millennium. Not survival of the kindest, whatever ‘kind’ means. Mother Teresa was NOT kind in spreading gospel that Christianity saves souls. Instead of teaching the value and necessity of socially responsible behavior, which would have served the greater good, preaching rewards in the afterlife does not help the living thrive in real life.

There is no need to fear the fact that human behavior is driven by SELF-INTEREST. Regardless of the religious allegory that Altruism is not only real, but mandatory for society to function, SELF-INTEREST is imperative for our continued survival. (LSM-Pic7)


To get people that ACT as your advertising and marketing content directs, make sure to address how your offering serves your target customers interests. The list below are psychological areas of SELF-INTEREST that we utilize in our marketing efforts to manipulate our audience to buy our product or service, or into our messaging.
—To be liked.
—To feel cool (as in hip, or trendy).
—To be appreciated.
—To be right.
—To feel important.
—To make money.
—To save money.
—To save time.
—For convenience.
—To feel secure.
—To feel attractive.
—To feel sexy.
—To be comfortable.
—To appear original.
—To appear smart/er.
—To win.
—To be happy.
—To have fun.
—To gain knowledge.
—To be healthy.
—To gratify curiosity.
—Out of fear; greed; guilt.



Getting people to do what we want is a process. It takes time, and requires multiple marketing touch-points, from NETWORKING, to print, to online social media marketing (SMM) advertising and branding campaigns. It’s likely you’ll get discouraged when you begin the launch process and don’t get much initial traction with your roll-out advertising, but this is typical.

MARKETING is an ITERATIVE PROCESS. We collect data with every marketing effort, and apply what we learn through analytics, and common sense, to improve our response rates (ROI) on the next campaign. We do this again and again to build brand awareness, and eventually sales. In Workshop 2, we’ll detail BRANDING, take you step-by-step in creating advertising and marketing campaigns that get the greatest response. Effective BRANDING is built on the MARKETING process, upon the foundation of Psychology, which identifies realities of human behavior that motivate us to ACT.

We are ALL self-interested, and likely won’t consider buying a product or service, or even into a message, if we don’t get something we WANT, or perceive that we NEED. Making a purchase, filling out a form for a newsletter, business report, or free ‘gift,’ is done with the belief that we will receive an offering of value for our action. If this belief is concertized, and the offering we receive does possess value, has a real benefit that serves us, even if it’s only entertainment, than it’s likely that business just won themselves a customer.

Remember, the second place startups fail is they launch without infrastructure to support BRAND or fulfillment. When you’re starting up, out of the gate, your offering must perform as your advertising and marketing campaigns promise. Living up to your word builds trust. Do NOT make promises you can not fulfill. Make sure your offering is as ready to launch as your marketing efforts. Practicing the RAF MARKEING method will keep you on track, performing the proper tasks, in the proper ORDER, to get the greatest return on your time, and likely money (ROI), that you’ve invested into actualize your new venture.

To manipulate people to buy into our product, service or message, or desire what we’re selling, we first, we must understand the difference between WANT and NEED.


WANT is a DESIRE, and desire is dynamic, changing all the time. At the base levels of our psyche, it’s virtually ALL WANT. You don’t even NEED to eat, if you don’t care about living. Absurd as this sounds, as of 2017, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S. And clearly, many of us aren’t paying attention to longevity with our poor food choices and eating habits. NEED to live is trumped by DESIRE quite a bit in the human psyche.

MARKETING must seek to understand what people REALLY DO, and why, if we hope to manipulate them to do what we want. We all hide behavior that we don’t like in ourselves. Some of us sneak sugary snacks when no one is watching. Many join a gym and never attend. Most all of us harbor negative feelings we believe to be facts about other cultures, that, to appear politically correct, we don’t vocalize.

To be effective at MARKETING, we must look beyond surface behavior—the facades we all wear—and drill down to what really is motivating someone to take an ACTION. Why does an obese person continue to overeat, especially with massive health problems? Why do many buy a book and never read it, or clothing and never where it? Why do some exercise consistently, and others won’t get off the couch, even though all of us know exercise is good for our health?

Desire is fickle, and we often believe we NEED what we want. Smart marketing understands this as a fact of human nature. And exploits it.

Marketing any company into a global BRAND requires turning WANT, desire, into perceived NEED. This is achieved by continually delivering benefit, or the perception of benefit. To build a loyal customer base, what Silicon Valley calls BRAND ADVOCATES, marketing efforts must work to convince USERS that they NEED our offering, or anything related to our BRAND.

Steve Jobs, of Apple Computer, effectively turned WANT to NEED by continually delivering user interfaces that were easy to learn and easy to use. Some people now believe they NEED Apple products. They have faith that Apple will continue to deliver great products, whether or not this continues to be true. Apple buyers are now Apple believers. Apple has effectively converted desire—WANT— into NEED.

NEED is compulsive, reactive, addictive. And once we convert someone from wanting something to thinking they NEED IT, we’ve created believers— a repeat customer. A BRAND ADVOCATE. Like any believers, these converts have faith our offerings will continue to fulfill their desires, whether or not this turns out to be true. Apple’s competitors now produces similar, and higher quality products for far less money, but Apple has lost few of their devotes by maintaining their unique brand image.

Startups, emerging companies, new ventures, fold when they fail to live up to their roll-out advertising— their promise of delivering quality offerings of value before becoming an established brand. Once your business or company has attracted a global audience, your BRAND recognizable across continents, it is easier to maintain market share, regardless of the quality, or even utility of your future offerings. But no matter how big you are, continually delivering overpriced crap, whether product or bad service, will eventually destroy your business. (Think now defunct; Beepi; Sears; Babe; GameStop, eToys…etc.)


Remember, we are all self-interested beings. We must consistently get what we WANT, or believe we NEED from your company to support your BRAND. (LSM_Pic8) In ALL of your marketing efforts, first consider what your current, and potential customers WANT, or perceived that they NEED.

THE Marketing Tool Required in Every Marketing Effort

Understanding marketing is motivating people to do what we want, to get people to do what we want, we must tell them what we want them to DO.

Never forget that marketing IS selling. They are one and the same. And the only way to sell someone something is to tell them what we want them to ACT on, what we want them to DO—whether we want them to buy our product, or sign up for our newsletter, or learn more about our program, or receive our free gift, or download a trial of our software.

Effective marketing directs people to do what we want. We motivate people to take a specific action with a marketing tool called a CTA— a CALL TO ACTION. Each CTA requests the viewer to DO what we TELL them to. A CTA is mandatory in ALL marketing efforts. Websites, to landing pages, to ads, you must have a CTA in every piece of marketing you produce to get anyone to buy your product or service, or into your message. To get people to do what you want, you must tell them what you want them to DO.



Two Types of CTAs

There are two basic types of CTAs: Direct, and Implied.

A DIRECT CTA tells the viewer what to do directly, as in BUY NOW. CLICK HERE.

The clip in the picture below, to the far left (white), is a CTA on, on the page of an e-book I considered purchasing. (LSM_Pic10)

Other than the first line, which is an IMPLIED CTA, suggesting I’d receive a 62% savings buying the Kindle version, most everything else on this clip of Amazon’s purchase box is a DIRECT CTA. Buy now. One click. Send. Deliver. Give. Add. Enter. Share. These words are all verbs, ACTION words, directing me to do something specific.

The center clip is the homepage for Stratus, and also has direct commands with Explore and Buy now.

The landing page to the far right for Fluid Services, has several direct CTAs: Sign-up. Start free. View demo.


While a DIRECT CTA tells people exactly what to do, we often don’t want to be told, or cease to hear advertisers yelling at us to ACT NOW.

Remember the Conversion Funnel? Conversion happens at different rates. Clicking for a discount on an ice cream is likely. Clicking on a purchase button for a Ferrari is not so likely.

IMPLIED CTAs are often the more effective marketing approach. An implied call to action is a suggestion to act, usually by touting the best benefits the offering provides. IMPLIED CTAs are generally used for BRANDING.

In the picture below (LSM_Pic11), it’s hard to tell that the Facebook post on the left, or the Tweet on the right, have any CTAs at all, both are marketing their offerings with IMPLIED CTAs. The CTAs on this post include good reviews, to show viewers that others think my novel is a great read. And while I’ve included a link to the book’s Amazon purchase page, nowhere does it say, “Buy Now.”


I’ve used several HASHTAGS in my post, as well as in most of my social media marketing (SMM) efforts. Hashtags are IMPLIED CTAs because they’re not directing you to DOWNLOAD NOW, or FILL IN THIS FORM. HASHTAGS simply categorize subject matter to help people find similar interests. We use HASHTAGS in our online marketing so it will show up in search results when someone queries a specific topic, effectively extending our reach, to get more views of our campaigns.

The Tweet also has implied CTAs. There are no links to their website, and no direct command telling us to CLICK HERE. The @ symbol at the start of the post, is an IMPLIED CTA—a suggestion to follow StormHour on Twitter. They are tempting viewers to do this with the promise that they’ll deliver Tweets of spectacular photos like the one they are Tweeting in this post. #PTOW is an acronym for PicOfTheWeek. Anyone consistently looking for great photography would likely know this HASHTAG already. And other photography fans may start using it once they’ve seen it many times on Tweets associated with great pics.

Share, Retweet and Like icons are considered IMPLIED CTAs because they’re not commanding the viewer to do anything directly. While the great photo in the Tweet has an external link, the image is still an IMPLIED CTA. It’s not asking you to CLICK, it’s suggesting you do when you hover over it and get the little hand that tells you the image has an active link.

IMPLIED CTAs are most commonly used for building brand awareness. A recent Cheerios commercial ( doesn’t show anyone eating their product. No announcer says BUY NOW. The commercial shows quick cuts of various moms dancing in their kitchens with their tween kids. They are BRANDING their cereal as nutritional, fun, even heartwarming, a suggestion for healthy living. Cheerios is effectively building their brand as a lifestyle choice most of us strive for, making it more likely we’ll buy it next time we’re at the store.

Whether an Implied or Direct CTA, a CTA is mandatory on every piece of marketing material you produce. Because in order to get people to do what you want, you must tell them what you want them to do. CTAs tell or suggest your target audience to take an ACTION, and RESPOND to your marketing efforts.


Let’s review the MARKETING fundamentals introduced in this module.

• There is no difference between DIGITAL and TRADITIONAL MARKETING. We are still selling to people, and we use PSYCHOLOGY to market to people. Human psychology has changed very little since we became homo-sapiens.

• MARKETING is SELLING, manipulating, or motivating, people to buy our products, services or into our messaging.

• A CONVERSION FUNNEL is a marketing model that illustrates how a sale is made.

• MARKETING TOOLS, like ad campaigns, build awareness, spark interest in our offering, and hopefully motivate a response.

• TARGET MARKETING is the process of finding potential users who will likely find benefit in our new offering.

• INCENTIVES, such as sales, gifts, and special offers, are an effective sales tool to convert INTEREST to PURCHASE.

• Effective MARKETING always sells FEATURES & BENEFITS fulfilling WANT.

• TIGHTLY TARGETING our MARKETING efforts to a specific audience likely to BENEFIT from our offering will garner greater response.

• Converting WANT to NEED requires consistently delivering BENEFITS to win, and grow customer loyalty.

• To get people to do what we want, we must tell them what we want them to do.

• We direct people to do what we want them to with a CTA, a call to action.

• We can choose a DIRECT or IMPLIED CTA, but a CTA must be integrated into every marketing effort.

• MBA or marketing novice, apply these MARKETING FUNDAMENTALS to every campaign you produce for the greatest response on your marketing investments.